Commentary

We generally take free press for granted. Here in Canada, we may complain about bias or criticize newspapers for favouring one perspective at the expense of another. In the case of certain sources that fawn over politicians or refrain from critically analyzing certain facets of an issue, these criticisms are justified. Overall, though, things aren’t… Read More


Last time, we talked about meso level factors of restrain. Join us as today we discuss macro level factors! MACRO-LEVEL Macro-level sources of restraint include systems. In terms of political economy, for example, genocide carries high costs. It invites international condemnation and carries significant costs to a state’s reputation, it triggers international arrest warrants, and… Read More


Previously, we talked about what micro level factors of restraint…today, let’s talk about meso level factors! MESO-LEVEL Meso-level sources of restraint include actions taken and positions held by groups and organizations. Groups may hold formal and informal mechanisms that foster cooperation by facilitating inter-communal, mutually-beneficial cooperation such as marriages, commercial exchanges, and ritualized gift giving. Groups and… Read More


Previously, we talked about what ‘factors of restraint’ are…read that post here! Today, we are going to talk about factors that inhibit the escalation of violence at the micro level. MICRO-LEVEL Micro-level sources of restraint include people and other factors of change. At a personal level, individuals hold values and morals that lead them not… Read More